Importance of Sadaqah al-fitr/Zakah al-fitr/Fitrah
What is Sadaqah al-fitr?
Sadaqah al-fitr is a sadaqah that is wajib to be given by every Muslim who is alive at the end of the month of Ramadan and who has at least Nisab (amount of money or goods apart) from his fundamental needs. It is also called Fitrah.
Sadaqah al-fitr (Fitrah) is a great form of charity and an action loved by Allah tala. It is given by man as gratitude in order to gain rewards from Allah tala.
Sadaqah al-fitr is a means of an acceptance of fasting by Allah; to remove any shortcomings which occurred during the fast, salvation from the punishment of the grave and hellfire. It helps the poor to meet their needs and be happy on the day of Eid. It’s a humane duty upon every Muslim who is eligible to pay it.
For whom is it Wajib to pay Sadaqah al-fitr?
The necessary conditions for paying Sadaqah al-fitr are as follows:
- to be a Muslim (male/female)
- to be a free person (not a slave)
- to have Nisab amount of money or goods apart from his fundamental needs
- It is not necessary to be sane and to have reached the age of puberty for Sadaqah al-fitr
- The Sadaqah al-fitr of the rich mentally ill, and children need to be given by their guardians.
When is it necessary to pay Sadaqah al-fitr?
Sadaqah al-fitr becomes Wajib on the first day of Eid al-fitr beginning from the dawn. The Mustahab and better way of giving Sadaqah al-fitr is to give it after dawn and before leaving for the Eid prayer. However, there is no drawback to giving Sadaqah al-fitr a few days or even months before Eid. Thus, it helps the poor to meet their needs for Eid beforehand.
- It is necessary to pay the Sadaqah al-fitr that have not been paid on time as soon as possible. This is the view of Imam Abu Hanifa.
According to the other three imams, Sadaqah al-fitr becomes Wajib on the last day of Ramadan after the sun sets. It is not permissible to pay it after the Eid prayer.
- It is not Wajib for a person who dies or who becomes poor before the dawn on the first day of Eid al-fitr to pay Sadaqah al-fitr. It is Wajib to pay Sadaqah al-fitr for a rich person who dies after dawn. It is paid from his inheritance.
- If the money or goods of Nisab amount are destroyed after Sadaqah al-fitr becomes Wajib and before Sadaqah al-fitr is paid, it is necessary to pay Sadaqah al-fitr.
Who needs to give Sadaqah al-fitr?
- A Muslim who has Nisab amount needs to give Sadaqah al-fitr for himself, his children who are poor and his servant. According to Imam Abu Hanifa, the Sadaqah al-fitr of rich children are paid from the children’s money.
- The Sadaqah al-fitr of a child who has reached the age of puberty but who is not sane is given by his father. Sadaqah al-fitr is not paid for a child who has not been born yet.
- A person does not have to pay Sadaqah al-fitr for his father, mother, grandfather and grandmother even if they live together with him. The same thing is valid for the relatives. A grandfather does not have to pay Sadaqah al-fitr for the poor children of his son whether their father is alive or not.
- A person does not have to pay Sadaqah al-fitr for his wife and his child who has reached the age of puberty and who is sane. For such people are responsible people and can manage their own affairs. However, it is permissible for the husband or father to pay their Sadaqah al-fitr by taking permission from them. However, what is essential for everybody is to pay their own Sadaqah al-fitr.
- It is necessary for a person to have Niyyah (intention) for Sadaqah al-fitr just like Zakah, it has to be given to the poor and become the property of the poor. It is not necessary to say that what you give is Sadaqah al-fitr.
- A person who cannot perform fasting due to old age or an illness in Ramadan is not exempted from paying Sadaqah al-fitr. He has to fulfil this Wajib deed.
Note: A person cannot give Sadaqah al-fitr to his wife/her husband or to his/her child or father/mother. For instance, a woman cannot give Sadaqah al-fitr to her husband, father or son who is poor.
What is the amount (Nisab) of Sadaqah al-fitr?
- The Hanafi School is in the opinion of specifying a set amount (Nisab) for Sadaqah al-fitr to become Wajib. This is due to the fact that in many places, Sadaqah al-fitr has been termed as Zakah al-fitr. For example, the Hadith of Ibn Umar (RA) in Sahih al-Bukhari. Hence by analogy, the Zakah al-fitr (Sadaqah al-fitr) will also have a set Nisab and it will become Wajib on a person when he has the Nisab of Zakah by him. The scholars have mentioned three types of Nisab which differ slightly from Zakah.
- That which obligates Zakah, will also obligate Sadaqah al-fitr. However, when one considers giving Sadaqah al-fitr, the calculation of wealth should be made on Silver amount which is equivalent to 612.36g of silver and not the gold amount which is calculated while taking out Zakah. The benefit of that will be more people giving Sadaqah al-fitr and more receiving it.
- To posses any assets beyonds ones necessities is equivalent to the value of 612.36g of silver.
- To be in possession of one day’s provision.
- According to the Maliki, Shafi and Hanbali schools, one who possesses surplus provisions for the night and day of Eid for himself and his dependents, will be obliged to discharge of Sadaqah al-fitr.
In short, according to Hanafi school of Fiqh, for Sadaqah al-fitr to be obligatory, one must possess any asset surplus of ones basic needs which are equivalent to the value of 612.36g of silver.
Note: A person who has to pay Zakah, needs to own the Nisab amount of money or property for one year, but there is no such condition for Sadaqah al-fitr. If a person has the Nisab amount of money or property until the morning of Eid when Sadaqah al-fitr can be given, it becomes Wajib for him to pay Sadaqah al-fitr.
Who are the recipients of Sadaqah al-fitr?
The scholars are unanimous that the recipients of Sadaqah al-fitr are identical to that of Zakah. This is based on the verse mentioned in Surah Taubah regarding the recipients of Zakah. They are the poor, needy, Zakah collectors, those whose hearts are being reconciled, slaves, debtors, those in the cause of Allah and travellers.
- Sadaqah al-fitr can be given to the non-Muslims living in the Islamic countries but it cannot be given to the non-Muslims living in the non-Muslim countries.
How is Sadaqah al-fitr paid?
- A person can give his Sadaqah al-fitr to a poor person but a Sadaqah al-fitr cannot be divided in order to be given to more than one person. However, a few people can gather their Sadaqah al-fitr and give them to one poor person.
- A few people can gather their Sadaqah al-fitr and give them to a few poor in a mixed way. They do not have to give each Sadaqah al-fitr separately. However, it is regarded better to give them separately.
- A person should give his Sadaqah al-fitr to one of the poor people of the area where he lives.
What to give for Sadaqah al-fitr?
Sadaqah al-fitr was given based on 4 food items mainly during the time of Prophet (SAW):
1 – Wheat or wheat flour. The amount of wheat that is Wajib to give is half sa’ (520 dirhams: 1667 gr.)
2 – Barley or barley flour. The amount of barley that is Wajib to give is one sa’ (1040 dirhams: 3333 gr.)
3 – All kinds of raisin. The amount of raisin that is Wajib to give is one sa’ (3333 gr.)
4 – Dry dates. The amount of dates that is Wajib to give is one sa’ (3333 gr.)
Sadaqah al-fitr can be given based on one of these four food items, or their equivalent as money. It is better to pay their equivalent as money. The amount stipulated today by the scholars is £5 per person.
Note: Newbury park Masjid will be collecting the Sadaqah al-fitr and we will ensure that the money will go to the those who are in need In Sha Allah.
Please contact brother Ibrahim for collection.
Contact number 07425176469
Account name: Newbury Park Masjid
Sort code : 400233
Account number: 01626515
Allah knows best